Author Archives: Okunomichi

About Okunomichi

Okunomichi represents a group of seekers of sacred wisdom of the East. We are focusing primarily on the wisdom of ancient Japan, when there was not even a nation by that name. Yet, over a long period of time, an advanced civilization grew and developed high levels of understanding of the universe and how to live in harmony. This knowledge, these teachings, have been hard to discover for us in the West. We are finding them, and we are sharing them, with you.

1.1 Revised References and Resources

This is an updated list of references and resources. Here are some sources for the Western and Japanese Wosite researcher. There are only two books in English; the others are in Japanese. We are preparing what will be the third book in English. Keep watching for further news. We welcome your inputs.

Books

The first modern books on Wosite were written (in Japanese) by Yoshinosuke Matsumoto after he had studied the Hotsuma Tsutae for thirty years. Two books appeared in English. 

Wosite_20151227_0006
Book 1 by Ikeda and Book 2 by Matsumoto

1.  Mitsuru Ikeda, The World of the Hotsuma Legends, Japan Translation Center, 1996.

2.  Yoshinosuke Matsumoto, The Hotsuma Legends: Paths of the Ancestors, Japan Translation Center, 1999.

Numerous books in Japanese have been published by Mitsuru Ikeda. Of particular value is this two-volume work offering all the extant Woshite literature, in Woshite with footnotes,

Wosite_20151227_0005
Book 3 in two volumes by Ikeda

3.  記紀原書ヲシテ 上巻―『ホツマツタヱ』『ミカサフミ』『フトマニ』のすべて,  Ki-ki gensho Woshite: Hotsuma Tsutae, Mikasafumi, Futomani  (two volumes), Woshite Original Documents for Ki-Ki (Kojiki and Nihon Shoki):  Hotsuma Tsutae, Mikasafumi, Futomani.  池田 満  (著)  Ikeda Mitsuru (author), 2006.

Book 4 Hotsuma Jiten by Ikeda

4. ホツマ辞典―漢字以前の世界へ, Hotsuma Jiten — Kanji Izen no Sekai he, 池田 満  (著)  Ikeda Mitsuru (author), 1999.

Book 5 by Matsumoto

5. ミカサフミ・フトマニ Mikasafumi – Futomani , 松本 善之助 (監修), 池田 満 , Matsumoto Yoshinosuke (author), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision), 1999.

More recently, books by Wosite researchers Aoki, Hiraoka, and Shiba have appeared, also in Japanese. Wosite research and this site draw heavily from these two books:

Wosite_20151227_0003
Book 6 by Aoki and Hiraoka

6.「よみがえる日本語 −−ことばのみなもとヲシテ」Yomigaeru Nihongo — Kotoba no minamoto Woshite,  Revival of Japanese Language – Woshite Origin of Language. 青木 純雄・平岡 憲人 (著), 池田 満 (監修),   Aoki Sumio and Hiraoka Norito (authors), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision). 明治書院 Meiji Shoin Publishing House, 2009.    

Wosite_20151227_0004
Book 7 by Aoki and Shiba

7.  よみがえる日本語II: 助詞のみなもと「ヲシテ」 Yomigaeru Nihongo II:  Joshi no minamoto Woshite,  Revival of Japanese Language II: Woshite Source of Particles.青木 純雄 (著), 斯波 克幸 (著), 池田 満 (監修),  Aoki Sumio and Shiba Katsuyuki (authors), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision). 明治書院 Meiji Shoin Publishing House, 2015.

Book 8 in two volumes by Suda Masako

8. 完訳 超古代史 秀真伝  Kanyaku (complete translation) “Chou-Kodaishi Hotsuma Tsutae” by 須田麻紗子. Ultra Ancient Document Hotsuma Tsutae, 2013, two volumes by Suda Masako. See previous post for details.

Book 9 by JTC

9. 〔ホツマツタヱ〕―秀真政伝紀 by 大田田根子命、 安聡, 和仁估. Hotsuma Tsutae by Ohta Taneko, Yasutoshi Waniko, Japan Translation Center, 2000/2010. This book presents the complete text of Yasutoshi Waniko, handwritten in 1775.

Book 10 Koshi Koden Taikei

10. 古史古伝大系―神道・倭人・天皇の歴史 Koshi Koden Taikei, Compendium of Ancient History of Legends, by 吾郷 清彦, 鹿島昇Agō Kiyohiko et al., 1983. The term koshi koden was coined by Agō to refer to this genre of literature. There is a chapter on Hotsuma Tsutaye and Mikasafumi by Agō. Other chapters include Kodai moji (ancient scripts); Uetsufumi, Kuki Shinden, and Takenouchi Monjo ancient documents. The Wosite documents are not the only documents written in an ancient script.

Internet Sources

Chapters of the Hotsuma Tsutae can be read on the English language site of the Japan Translation Center, http://www.hotsuma.gr.jp/index-e.html

The Julian Way Wosite website of Beace is tremendously informative, if you can read Japanese or have it translated for you.

Our sister blogsite, https://okunomichi.wordpress.com/ has carried posts on Woshite which can be found by searching on this word. These were earlier posts that were translated from various Japanese language sources to the best of our ability at that time. We have since had the honor and the privilege to study with Japanese Wosite researchers and have produced this site devoted to Wosite research.

Online Japanese-English dictionary

If you have a digital text in Japanese, you can copy and paste it into this dictionary: http://jisho.org/.  “Enter any Japanese text or English word in the search box and Jisho will search a myriad of data for you.”

We hope that this Woshite World site now makes Wosite research more accessible to English language readers.

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Hotsuma Tsutae: Suda Masako’s Two-Volumes, 2013

完訳 超古代史 秀真伝  Kanyaku (complete translation) “Chou-Kodaishi Hotsuma Tsutae” by 須田麻紗子

Ultra Ancient Document Hotsuma Tsutae, 2013, two volumes by Suda Masako

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Editor’s Note:  This is a re-post from Okunomichi.

Please refer to previous posts on Hotsuma Tsutae, especially the initial post,  https://okunomichi.wordpress.com/2013/05/17/hotsuma-tsutae/. Briefly, the Hotsuma Tsutae’s first 28 aya were written for Jimmu Tenno (r. 660-585 BCE) by Kushimikatama. 12 additional aya were written under Keiko Tenno (r. 71-130 CE) by Ohtataneko. The 40 aya were copied and annotated with kanbun by Waniko Yasutoshi in 1775. The Hotsuma Tsutae was discovered in recent times by Matsumoto Yoshinosuke in 1966.

Maegaki   Preface

Suda Masako who is now 87 has been searching for Truth for forty years, as her mother Ryo did. Ryo’s father was a surgeon who died when she was 17. Ryo wanted to learn the right perspective for life which was precious. Her mother died around the time she graduated from college.

Showa 44, 1969, mother and daughter began to study the Hotsuma Tsutae under Matsumoto Yoshinosuke, twice a month for a year and a half. Masako did suigyo water purification every morning and started to see spiritual things.

Showa 58, 1983, they studied Ago’s Hotsuma Tsutae exclusively. Masako translated and wrote the stories in her own words, from Prologue to the last of the 40 ayas.

Ago was living in Shimane. He sent Ogasawara Nagahiyo (great grandson of Michimasa) to see her in Yokohama. Ogasawara and five associates visited and asked if they could have her translation, and they would send her related materials such as their commentaries. She could see that her translation was more modern than theirs.

Next, they examined the Hotsuma Tsutae (HT) of Ohtataneko’s kept at Hiyoshi Taisha in Biwako. This was the copy written out in kanbun, Chinese writing, by Waniko Yasutoshi in 1775, comprised of 24 books in three boxes. It was beautiful, interesting, and held deep meaning for Masako. This is the copy she used for her translation.

Hotsuma Tsutae contains the origin of Japanese culture and the heart of Nihon. This is Suda’s fervent belief.

This set of two volumes by Suda Masako contains the complete Hotsuma Tsutae in these five forms: genbun original, yomikudashi straight translation, modern translation, Waniko’s kanbun, and Masako’s translation.

Mikasafumi

Suda writes the kanji for Mikasafumi as book of kami riding on the mountain (as compared to others who write it as three umbrellas). Mikasafumi was written by Lord Kasuga, Ame no Koyane, who presented it to the 12th tenno, Keiko . It was edited by Ohokashima. This was at the time that Ohtataneko completed the Hotsuma Tsutae and offered it to the tenno.

Futomani

Prologue, Hotsuma Tsutae o nobu

When heaven and earth began, the two parent kami had an Ame-no-sakahoko (representing order) and To-no-woshite (representing heavenly law), and all was good. As the number of people grew, they became more insensitive. Amaterasu made yatakagami to show truth, and gave the Mikusa-no-kantakara three treasures to Ninikine.

Long after the human tenno age began, there was the ninth tenno Kaika (r. 157-98 BCE) who abused his power. He took his father’s concubine. Ohomikenushi, the grandfather of Ohotataneko, left his post at the government in protest. He was the fifth generation grandson of Kushimikatama who wrote the original 28 ayas of the HT.

The new tenno, Keiko, needed help in governing the people and Ohotataneko provided it. He edited 40 ayas of the HT, the original 28 and the additional 12 ayas which he wrote. He presented them to the tenno. He was 234 years old.

Hotsuma means perfect harmony. Hotsuma is also a way of life, a policy, so that when using Hotsuma, the country is Hotsuma.

“If you count all the sands on the beach, you can never end the teaching of Hotsuma. Hotsuma is Oshiye no Michi.”  Hotsuma is the teaching of the Way.

Koto nobe no nagauta, Song to Introduce the Story

This uta was written by Ohokashima no Mikoto, 247 years old, to congratulate Ohotataneko on the completion of the Hotsuma Tsutae.

Amaterasu said that Ninikine is the reincarnation of Kunitokotachi because he separated lightning into fire and water, and he was given the name Wakeikazuchi. Ninikine was the first to be called Amakimi (Tenno). Amaterasu, after 170 ten thousands of years (1,700,000 years) went back to the sun and he is still shining on us.

The 26th aya is about Toyotama and it raises a question of her being a dragon. It is due to the use, or misuse, of tenioha. Tenioha is an important element of grammar as it includes particles and syntactical relationships. Without proper application of tenioha, interpretations may be erroneous.

Then, Ohokashima wrote the Hana no soe ueta, about Yamata no kuni and Hishiyo-no-miya, Keiko Tenno’s palace. Ohokashima was daiguji (kan-ochi) of Ise Kotai Jingu.

MIKASA FUMI

Seishu mondo by Kibi no Makibi

This document is produced at the end of Suda’s book. [It has been published by JTC with a beige cover.]

Mikasafumi had 64 aya, and the copy or copies had many bug holes. Therefore, when Nihon Shoki was being written, using Mikasafumi as a reference, there would have been mistakes. Furthermore, when Toneri Shinao was diligently writing the text, Amaterasu was male. But the Empress had a doukyo Buddhist priest that she was in love with. He wanted to take over the country with his son. With his power over the empress, he was able to change the Nihon Shoki and make Amaterasu female.

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Space-Time Haiku of Buson

Buson, self-portrait

Buson  1716-1784

Buson was born in the Taniguchi family in Settsu Province, and later changed to the surname of Yosa, for the town in Tango Province. He advocated a return to the style of Bashō. He left many haiku and paintings. His vision sweeps over vast realms of space and time. The material here was again inspired by Nakano Koji, translated by Julia Winters Carpenter, in the book, Words to Live By, 2018.

Haiku of Space

Buson’s poetic imagination evokes the expansiveness of space. After a boat trip down the Yodo River in the freezing night, Buson wrote the following, highlighting the moon and the frost and himself in a small boat.

shimo hyakuri

shūchū ni ware

tsuki o ryosu

Frost for a hundred leagues —

alone in my boat

I rule the moon.    

The peony, too, appears in a poem of a hundred leagues of space.

hōhyakuri

amagumo yosenu

botamu kana

For a hundred leagues square

holding rainclouds at bay —

the peony.

As Mr. Nakano states: “The peony has the power to hold rainclouds at bay for a hundred leages in all directions.” This haiku requires us to translate the word, yosenu. Dictionary meanings for the verb 寄(よせる) are many. They vary from “to bring near” to “to push away.” Here, Nakano takes the latter meaning. Again, Buson uses the imagery of a hundred leagues of space and a small peony flower. 

Another simple, yet dramatic, scene is this haiku tagged “Spring scenery”.

na no hana ya

tsuki wa higashi ni

hi wa nishi ni

Rape flowers—

the moon in the east,

the sun in the west.

Haiku of Time

Nakano aptly calls these haiku “Layers of Time.” He points out that, in addition to his view of space, Buson expresses an ability to see the passage of time. Let us consider some of the seasonal poems.

Spring

osoki hi no

tsumorite tōki

mukashi kana

Lazy spring days

piling up — so far away,

the past. 

In the lazy days of spring, the past seems far away. And yet —

kinō kure

kyō mata kurete

yuku haru ya

Yesterday ended,

today is also ending —

so goes the spring.

Summer

natsukawa o

kosu ureshisa yo

te ni zōri

The joy of wading

across a summer stream

sandals in hand.

Buson thus wrote of the pleasure of wading in a cool stream in the hot summer of Tamba.

Autumn

去年より又さびしひぞ秋の暮
kyonen yori mata sabishii zo aki no kure

kyonen yori

mata sabishii zo

aki no kure

Lonelier

than last year —

the end of autumn.

This haiku evokes memory of Bashō’s kono michi ya / yuku hito nashi ni / aki no kure.

Winter

こがらしや岩に裂行水の聲
kogarashi ya iwa ni sake yuku mizu no koe

Cold wintry wind —
Breaking over rocks
The voice of water.

—– Takafumi Saito and William R. Nelson,
trans., 1020 Haiku in Translation (2006)
956, 249; from Upaya.org.

初雪の底を叩ば竹の月
hatsuyuki no soko wo tatakeba take no tsuki

Ed. Note: This is such a magnificent haiku that we leave it to you to interpret for yourself. Hatsuyuki means first snow; soko is bottom; tataku is to beat; take is bamboo; tsuki is moon.

Drama

Buson’s range of haiku includes this exciting scene.

Tobadono e

gorokki isogu

nowaki kana

To Toba Palace

race five or six horsemen —

autumn tempest.

These horsemen are riding furiously through the storm to the villa of the retired emperor Shirakawa near Kyoto. This historical scenario would have taken place during Shirakawa’s lifetime, 1053-1129, six hundred years earlier.

Paintings

Buson left many paints from simple sketches to grand vistas in the Chinese style. Here is a painting commemorating Basho’s journey to Michinoku.

Okunohosomichi by Buson
(public domain image)

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Heartfelt Waka of Saigyō

Saigyō
(public domain image)

Preface

As we were thinking about kototama, we came across the chapters on Saigyō in the book, Words to Live By, by Nakano Kōji, 2018, translated by Julia Winters Carpenter. For a fuller discussion of Saigyō the monk and his works, we refer you to this book.

Saigyō , 1118-1190

The monk Saigyō  lived during the turbulent times of the Genpei War between the Genji and the Heike, and the Kamakura shogunate was established. He is beloved for the honest feelings expressed in his waka, waka that reflect the kototama of Wosite and Yamato Kotoba.

Saigyō  was born Satō Norikiyo (佐藤 義清) in a samurai family; the Satō clan originated from the Northern Fujiwara, whose founder was Fujiwara no Fusasaki. The very first Fujiwara was Fujiwara no Kamatari, 614-669, of the Nakatomi clan, who received the Fujiwara name from Emperor Tenji. The Nakatomi were descended from the Mononobe of the Wosite period, who were in turn descended from Kasuga no Kami, of the Amanokoyane lineage. Saigyō was actually related to Fujiwara no Hidehira who ruled Mutsu Province and who sheltered Minamoto no Yoshitsune from his warlord brother Yoritomo during the Genpei War.

Cherry blossoms and heart

Saigyō was entranced by sakura, cherry blossoms, which are referred to as hana in waka. Here is one of his cherry blossom waka.

Yoshinoyama

kozue no hana o

mishi hi yori

kokoro wa mi ni mo

sowazu nariniki

Since the day I saw

cherry blossoms in treetops 

on Mt. Yoshino,

my heart is no longer 

here inside me.

Saigyō wrote a lot about his heart.

ukareizuru

kokoro wa mi ni mo

kanawaneba

ika nari totemo

ika ni ka wa semu

My heart, I find,

wanders off in ecstasy

quite out of myself;

I neither know where this may lead

nor what to do about it.

Let us explain the word mi which has been translated as “I” or “me”. According to Mr. Nakano, mi refers “to the whole person without the division into body and heart/mind that is typical in the west.” Saigyō often wrote about mi and kokoro, heart/mind or simply heart. 

iza kokoro

hana o tazunu to

iinashite

Yoshino no oku e

fukaku irinamu

Come away, my heart!

I’m going to search for blossoms,

I will say,

then be off to Yoshino

to enter mountain depths.

Don’t you just love the first line, iza kokoro, Come away, my heart!

Michinoku

If you are a lover of Bashō’s haiku, you know about his journey to Michinoku, following the footsteps of Saigyō. Saigyō wrote this at the Shirakawa border gatehouse.

Shirakawa no

sekiya o tsuki no

moru kage wa

hito no kokoro o 

tomuru narikeri

At Shirakawa

filtering into

the old gatehouse

moonlight beams arrest

the human heart.

Saigyō in his old age made another arduous journey to Michinoku. On the way, he saw the smoke of Mt. Fuji.

kaze ni nabiku

Fuji no kemuri no

sora ni kiete

yukue mo shiranu

waga moi kana

Trailing on the wind,

smoke from Mt. Fuji

fades into the sky,

drifting toward an unknown end

just like my own thoughts.

When the blossoms fall…

Saigyō wrote several waka about dying when the blossoms fall.

morotomo ni

ware o mo gushite

chirine hana

ukiyo o itou

kokoro aru mi zo

Blossoms,

when you scatter,

take me with you too!

My heart is oh so weary

of this cruel world.


Saigyō died on the sixteenth day of the second month, as the cherry blossoms fell.

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Kototama and “Now” — An Izumo Taisha Shinto Perspective

KOTOTAMA

Okunomichi and WoshiteWorld are deeply interested in the study and practice of Kototama. This is another in the Kototama series of expository articles. Here, we share a Shinto view of Kototama. We received the statements below from a representative of Izumo Taisha Grand Shrine. 

Introduction

Izumo Taisha (Izumo Ōyashiro) is one of the oldest and largest Shinto shrines in Japan. The taisha enshrines Ōkuninushi no Ōkami, kami of earth and spiritual world.

Shinto is the native Japanese religion which is based on traditional nature worship and animism. It does not have a particular founder, doctrine, or scripture. This is similar to old Hawaiian and Native American religions.


Nakaima, The “Now”

The word Nakaima comes from a national history book, Shoku Nihongi, Sequel to Chronicle of Japan, 797 CE [sequel to Nihon Shoki, 720 CE]. Nakaima is made up of two words, naka and ima, where the former means middle and the latter means now, the present time.

As Shinto does not have concepts about heaven and hell in the hereafter, “this world” is considered the most valuable and important time for all lives. It is the “middle” between the past and the future. “Now” is the precious time to reflect the past and expect the future.

Kototama of Norito

Shinto prayers, norito, are based on Kototama, the worship to words and language itself. From ancient times, it is said that, “The words can move the heaven and the earth” especially in the Japanese poems (waka, tanka). Traditionally, people use and choose words very carefully when they compose the poems because of Kototama, especially yamato kotoba (ancient Japanese classical words). This is why norito is composed only from yamato kotoba. When the words are pronounced, Kototama is involved — with its vibration toward the world.

Kototama and Nakaima

In Shinto cosmology, Kototama is the basic tool to affect Nakaima.  

Experience Kototama and Nakaima

To experience Kototama in Nakaima, recite Ōharae no Kotoba, the prayer for Great Purification, one of the most famous norito. 

HARAE NO KOTOBA, PRAYER FOR PURIFICATION AND BLESSING

The Harae no Kotoba below is an invocation often recited at Izumo Taisha asking Ōkuninushi no Ōkami, and all the myriads of Kami to join in the ceremony. There are three basic types of harae purification and blessing:

  • the body (to maintain health and well-being, to heal or avoid illness;
  • the soul or spirit of the living and the dead;
  • our surroundings and natural environment.

The last three lines can be recited as a short prayer for purification and blessing.

Harae no Kotoba

kakemaku mo kashikoki Izanagi no Ōkami

Tsukushi no Himuka no Tachibana no Odo no

Ahagihara ni misogi harai tamaishi toki ni

narimaseru haraido no Ōkami tachi

kamunagaranaru Ōmichi no naka ni umarete

arinagara sono mikage woshi fukaku omowazute

sumekamitachi no mimegumi wo oroka ni omi

tarishitoki ni ayamachi okaseru wa saranari

ima mo tsumi-kegare aramu woba harai tamai

kiyome tamae to mousu kotowo yaoyorozu no

kamitachi tomoni kikoshimese to

kashikomi kashikomi mo mousu



harai tamai kiyome tamae

harai tamai kiyome tamae

harai tamai kiyome tamae

References

Izumo Taisha, Izumo Ōyashiro, website:  http://www.izumooyashiro.or.jp/’

Izumo Taisha: https://yamanomiya.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/eleven-shrines-in-izumo-izumo-taisha/

Norito and Oharae:  [https://japanshrinestemples.blogspot.com/2015/09/norito-incantations.html]

Kototama on Okunomichi and WoshiteWorld: Type the word “Kototama” in the Search box.

This post also appears on Okunomichi.

 

 

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Third Anniversary of WoshiteWorld

Motoake Chart created by Toyoke no Kami
to teach creation of world

JANUARY 2019  —  NEWS

Wosite character for “To”, To no Wosite teaching document

WOSHITEWORLD ANNIVERSARY!

WoshiteWorld has been posting for three years, since 2016.01.01. From a small beginning, we have begun to reach out to thousands of you visitors in 86 countries around the world.

Thank you for coming, thank you for staying with us, and learning about this great Treasure called Wosite. 

We would like to hear from you about your own interest in Wosite. How is it related to other matters in your home country? Please share your thoughts with us!

A WOSITE BOOK IS COMING!

We are happy to announce that a Wosite book — in English! — is actively in preparation. We realize that it may be difficult to learn Wosite reading and writing by just by studying this blog. Perhaps a copy of lessons and texts and photos in your hands will be better. We hope that the book will teach what you want to know, and in an easier way! Please let us know what you hope to find in the book.

Hinumani Jinja, enshrinement of Toyoke no Kami
Excerpt from Mikasahumi, one of the Three Sacred Treasures

Wakanoura Bay, Wakayama, where Wakahime loved to visit


SEEKING YOUR SUPPORT —
FOR PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF WOSITE IN ENGLISH

We are concerned that this treasure trove of Wosite learning be preserved and promoted. This collection of WoshiteWorld studies — in English — is unique. There is no other documentation like it.

We are soliciting your support and suggestions. Please use the Reply link at the top of recent posts. We are grateful for your participation!

Isanagi’s burial place, Izanagi Jingu

Isanami’s burial place, Hibayama Jinja


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Process of Kototama

How does Kototama “work”?

Kototama is the power of human speech to create. Wosite and Nekoye give an explanation of how Kototama functions creatively. The starting point is the Wosite description of the continuous creation of the world.

Amemiwoya in center of creaton

Creation Process

There is an Original Presence behind all that’s created. We give it the name, Amemiwoya, Exalted Sacred Parent. It corresponds to the Quantum Void, the Great Emptiness that has potential for everything. Amemiwoya, by reverberating the seed sound u, begins to umu (give birth to) Ame a and Tuti wa.  See the Motoake chart above.

In Ame-tuti, the word Ame represents an unseen dimensionless dimension of subtle, light, pure energy. The word Tuti refers to dense, heavy energy forms, that are seen and manifested as matter and physical energy of the phenomenal universe; it includes our Planet Earth and our Moon and humans and other beings.

Creation of Earth

The step-down process from Amemiwoya to light energy of Ame to dense matter of Tuti proceeds through five stages of vibration of the vowel sounds.

a Holding and anticipating 

i Breathing and flowing

u Running and activating

e Rushing and changing

o Balancing and stabilizing

The phenomenal world is thus created.

Creation of Humans

  • Amemiwoya initiates creation.
  • Akuta Kami protect Amemiwoya, and establish seasons of the year and directions of space.
  • Anami Kami protect Awanouta song of universe and language, and bring down vibrations to form the human body.
  • Misohu Kami produce the human body, and reverberate the human voice.

Human Voice: Nekoye and Kototama

The human voice has two aspects which we may refer to as Nekoye and Kototama. Nekoye is the forming of koye human speech and language out of ne throat sounds. When Misohu Kami reverberate in the human voice, the ne throat sounds become koye, words with meaning, and speech and language. Language enables humans to communicate and this, in turn, allows for cooperation and the building of society.

Kototama is a general term refering to the power/Spirit of language. The Spirit of language has the power to make koto things from koto words. We have above presented the Wosite view of how this is done. Conversely, Kototama is the language of Spirit. Spirit with a capital S is energy of Universe from Amemiwoya. Amemiwoya speaks through Kototama. In other words, not all human speech contains the same amount of energy or power. The closer to the will of Amemiwoya, the more energy and power will be carried in the Kototama of that speech.

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