Category Archives: Hotuma Tutaye

Etymology of Ka, Iki, and Ki

The Wosite script for ka, day

The Word ka

The word ka か(日) appears in a modern Japanese dictionary as: day of month; counter for days. How did it get to be so? Wosite word analysis has an answer.

The circle of a represents utuho. Utuho is a state of energy. It has other meanings: that which is not visible to the eye; superior; something light and floating; primordial; a certain place; possibility of change, potentiality of transformation. It is the unborn which is unseen, just before birth (umu).

Combine the vertical line of k with the circle of a and we get the ideogram for syllable kaKa is the light of the sun shining on the ground. As a result, ka came to mean the time of one day duration, from one sunrise to the next sunrise. 

Even today, we find ka meaning day in spoken Japanese. We count (numerals) and the days become:

hi (1),  tsui-tachi, the first day of the month

fu (2),   futsuka, the second day 

mi (3),   mikka, the third day

yo (4),   yokka, the fourth day

yi (5),   itsuka, the fifth day

to (10),   toka, the tenth day.

Why is the first day is called tsui-tachi? From tsuki (moon) tachi (starting), namely the month begins on day one with the new moon. So, until the tenth day of the month, the number is followed by ka. Other meanings of ka are bright; right; wealthy; right-side; west; autumn.

The glyph for i

The glyph for i

This is the glyph for the sound i. Its name is kase. The shape describes light and heat from the sun from sunrise to sunset, first rising to its peak midday and then declining to sunset. The daily temperature follows a similar pattern. To ancient people, light and heating from the sun were vitally important. Kase is separated out from male cosmic energy of utuho, the glyph for the sound a. It is the part that has regular movement like sunrise and sunset. Kase means there is movement or change. Something has actually occurred. However what has occurred is not visible to the eye. Therefore kase has this meaning of a regularly repeating movement, although it may be unseen. We can think of kase as vibration. Furthermore, it has the even deeper connotation that time exists.

The Words ki, iki

The syllable ki. When we combine the vertical line of k with the bell-shape of i we get the syllable ki. The vertical line represents the powerful energy of the sun, of space, coming down to earth.

The word ki.  You may be familiar with the Nihongo word ki. It is found in Aikido, the spiritual “martial art” of Morihei Ueshiba; and in the healing art of Reiki first introduced by by Dr. Mikao Usui. It is the subtle energy that runs through our meridians, and the energy that a spiritual-martial master projects across the room. It is also found in ordinary words such as tenki weather and denki electricity. Is the word ki found in Wosite literature? In Wosite literature, there are frequent mentions of iki which may be the equivalent of ki.

What is iki? The quick and simple answer is いき (息) iki is breath. But Wosite teaches us more, gives us a better understanding through character analysis. 

The word iki and verse from Hotuma Tutaye

The word iki. Now let us study the word iki. This is shown in the third figure. The word iki appears in the ancient document, Mikasafumi, lines 11349-11352.  The passage about the breath of Amemiwoya the Great Source reads:

ame tuti imata

naru zaru ni     ame no miwoya no

nasu iki ha     kiwanaku ugoku

amotokami     mitu ni ahurano

When ame Heavens and tuti Earth are not yet separated, Amenomiwoya’s breath is eternally and everywhere moving. Supporting the breath of Amemiwoya are the Amoto Kami, powerful energies of space.

Remember that ka is energy from space that goes straight down to the ground. And the glyph for  i  expresses repetitive movement of an invisible very light thing. Therefore, that is the meaning of iki, a regular movement of an invisible very light thing. Even now, iki is commonly used to mean breath, the breath of life.

Here is another passage about iki, Hotuma Tutaye 2576:

ame tuti no     hirakeru toki no

hito iki ga     me-wo to wakarete 

When ame and tuti separate, the first breath divides into wo male and me female. Here we see the first breath of life, the energy of life, iki.

In conclusion, we may say that the concept of the energy of life was known in Wosite times. The word used was iki.



Naka-kuni of Wosite was in Omi (Lake Biwa)

Lake Biwa of Ōmi and six Wosite shrines

Lake Biwa

If you have visited Shiga prefecture surrounding Lake Biwa, you may have heard its old name, Ōmi. What is Ōmi? Ōmi may be spelled out as Oumi, O-umi, where O is great and umi is body of water. In Wosite times it was called Awa-umi. The body of water is Biwako, Lake Biwa, but that is its modern name from the Edo period. The earliest civilization was centered at Ōmi. In fact, the area was called Naka-kuni, the center of the land. This is where Isanami and Isanagi made their home.

Lake Biwa is the largest lake in Japan. It clearly shows on maps of Japan. It is also one of the most ancient lakes in the world, 4.5 million years old. However, its maximum depth is only 104 m, so it is far from being one of the world’s deepest lakes. For comparison, Lake Baikal in southern Russia is the world’s deepest lake, 1,642 m. The deepest lake in the United States is Crater Lake in southern Oregon. Its depth is 594 m.

While hundreds of small rivers flow into Lake Biwa, there is only one outflow, the Seta river. The Seto river leads to the Uji River, then the Katsura and the Kizu. Further downstream is the Yodo River which exits into Osaka Bay.

Human beings have lived around Lake Biwa for more than 20,000 years, as archaeological evidence demonstrates.

Ashihara no Nakatsukuni

Ashihara no Nakatsukuni is a puzzling name for the land of Japan in the myths of the 8th century Kojiki document. Here is the Wosite explanation for this name. Nakatsukuni is another way of saying Naka-kuni. Ashihara means field of reeds, because the low-lying area around Lake Biwa was marshy and covered with reeds. Why was attention called to the reed fields? Wosite people were proud to have reclaimed the marshy land by draining excess water and planting rice fields. It may seem amazing that there was such engineering ability in those days.

Lake Biwa, Center of Wosite Civilization

The people of Wosite settled in the environs of Lake Biwa. When Isanami and Isanagi made it their center of unification, they called it Naka-kuni, the Center of the Land. And where, in Naka-kuni was the actual center? It may have been in the district of Takashima, now Takashima City of Shiga Prefecture.

Takashima City, Adogawa Town

Takashima City, on the left bank of Biwako, is made up of several towns including Takashima Town and Adogawa Town. If you have read our previous post on Kusuhiko’s forest, you will have seen that the forest is located in Adogawa, and a map of Takashima is shown. This location is marked by the red arrow in upper left of mep.

The discovery of the Hotuma Tutaye document was traced to this area. Mr. Yoshinosuke Matsumoto found a manuscript, of three chapters written in Wosite characters, which was entitled, Hotuma Tutaye, Sacred Treasure of the Mio Shrine, Sanjo Village, Takashima County, Province of Ōmi. The shrine and the village no longer exist. But Mr. Matsumoto eventually located all forty chapters of the Hotuma Tutaye at Hiyoshi Taisha.

Wosite Shrines

The arrows in the above map of Ōmi point to six important Wosite shrines. They are, counter clockwise from upper left:

Yorogi Jinja, in Adogawa, Kusuhiko’s forest

Shirahige Jinja, in Takashima, with torii in Lake Biwa, Sarutahiko Sirahige

Hiyoshi Taisha, where all 40 ayas of Hotsuma Tutaye in Waniko Yasutoshi’s hand were stored

Sakunado Jinja, in Otsu, Seoritsuhime’s main shrine

Sasaki Jinja, in Ōmi Hachiman, Sakunami Kami of sake-making

Taga Taisha, in Taga, Isanagi Taga no Kami, Toyoke, and Amateru

In Summary, people have lived around Lake Biwa since ancient times. The Wosite civilization took root in Ōmi, and Isanami and Isanagi made Takashima their center of activity. There are many places associated with Wosite kami which are now Shinto shrines. The first Wosite document discovered by Y. Matsumoto, the Hotuma Tutaye, had once been kept in a shrine in Takashima.


Hotsuma Tsutae: Suda Masako’s Two-Volumes, 2013


完訳 超古代史 秀真伝Kanyaku (complete translation) “Chou-Kodaishi Hotsuma Tsutae”by 須田麻紗子

Ultra Ancient Document Hotsuma Tsutae, 2013, two volumes bySudaMasako


Editor’s Note: Please refer to previous posts on Hotsuma Tsutae, especially the initial post, Briefly, the Hotsuma Tsutae’s first 28 aya were written for JimmuTenno (r. 660-585 BCE) by Kushimikatama. 12 additional aya were written underKeiko Tenno (r. 71-130 CE) by Ohtataneko. The 40 aya were copied and annotated with kanbun by Waniko Yasutoshi in 1775. The Hotsuma Tsutae was discovered in recent times by Matsumoto Yoshinosuke in 1966.

Maegaki Preface

Suda Masako who is now 87 has been searching for Truth for forty years, as her mother Ryo did. Ryo’s father was a surgeon who died when she was 17. Ryo wanted to learn the right perspective for life which was precious. Her mother died around the time she graduated from college.

Showa 44, 1969, mother…

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Kusihiko’s 10,000 Trees

Yorogi Jinja in what remains of Kusihiko’s forest of 10,000 trees

Kusihiko was the son of Ohonamuchi, and he convinced his father to cede the land of Izumo to Amateru, bringing peace and stability to the Wosite World which was centered in Omi (present-day Shiga-ken). For this, Kusihiko is associated with Suwa Taisha in Nagano. Kusihiko played an important role in Amateru’s government. We will have more to tell about Kusihiko’s accomplishments. Here, we give the back-story of Kusihiko’s healing forest, Yorogi-no-mori.

This story about Kusihiko is told in Aya 10 of the Hotuma Tutaye Wosite document:

Now the Takamimusubi commanded Ohonamuchi’s son Kushihiko, saying: “Kushihiko, the Mononushi. If you wed a woman from your own land, your status will fall. You should take my daughter Mihotsuhime, command the 80 myriad nobles and serve as protector of the heavenly grandchild Ninikine.” Thereupon, Kushihiko was granted land at Yorogi in Awaumi (now the Yorogi Shrine in Takashima County, Shiga Prefecture), where he pioneered the cultivation of medicinal herbs. Kushihiko planted a herb garden here, growing thousands of plants and myriad trees (yoro-ki, origin of the place names Yorogi no Mori and Nishi-Yurugi in Takashima County). He crushed and tasted each herb, studied its medicinal effect, and gave them all new names.
For generations, people would come to this Yorogi Palace to be cured of illness. Even birds and animals received treatment here, and the foundations were laid for medicine as practised in ancient Japan.

The area around Yorogi Jinja was once a vast forest, Kusihiko’s forest. Now only portions remain. Okunomichi has visited Kusihiko’s Yorogi no Miya. You can read about it here. The enshrined kami at Yorogi Jinja is Kusihiko’s son Mihohiko Komori, also known as Mikumari (a misnomer for Mi-Komori).

Even though Yorogi no miya today is small and surrounded by rice fields, it retains an aura of quiet dignity reminiscent of Kusihiko’s healing plants and trees.

Approach to Yorogi Jinja through Kusihiko’s forest

Where is Kusihiko’s forest? Below is a map of Takashima City and Adogawa Machi Town. The blue area on the right is labeled Biwako, Lake Biwa. Encircled is the Adogawa Eki train station. The smaller oval indicates Yorogi, the location of the Yorogi Jinja and the remaining forest.


Achihiko Omoikane, the First Hiyomi-no-miya

Togakushi Jinja Chu-sha

Togakushi Jinja

Achihiko Omoikane is enshrined as Omoikane at the Chu-sha of the famed Togakushi Jinja in Nagano-ken. Togakushi Jinja commemorates the myth of the Amanoiwato cave which was opened by Tajikarao. Omoikane is described as the kami who organized the kagura dance by Amanouzume. Tajikarao, Omoikane’s first son, is enshrined at the Oku-sha of Togakushi. And the second son, Uwaharu, is enshrined at Hoko-sha of Togakushi.

Achihiko Omoikane

Achihiko was a man of great achievement, as recorded in the Wosite documents. He held the post of Hidari-no-tomi for Amateru, and he managed the construction of Amateru’s Isawa no Miya home in Ise.

Achihiko was a great-grandson of Toyoke Kami, the wise fifth Takamimusubi. Achihiko married Hiruko Wakahime, Toyoke’s granddaughter and Amateru’s sister, at which time he acquired his alternate name, Omoikane. We wrote about Wakahime earlier in these pages.

Achihiko Omoikane’s genealogy is shown in this chart from Gejirin. At left is Toyoke (トヨケ), followed by his daughter Isanami (イサナミ), mother of Hiruko (ヒルコ) Wakahime. On the bottom line of the chart we see Yasokine (ヤソキネ), Takakine (タカキネ), and Omoikane (オモヒカネ Omohikane).

Hiruko and Omoikane marry, and the first two children are Tajikarao (タチカラヲ Tatikarawo) and Uwaharu (ウワハル).

Achi Jinja and Mt Ena

Mt Ena

Achihiko is the Achi kami for which a town in Nagano-ken is named. There is a shrine called Achi Jinja, due east of Mt Ena. Wosite documents consider this to be Achihiko Omoikane’s final resting place. Achi Jinja not only spun-off its kami to Togakushi, it may have been the original Togakushi Jinja.

The peak of Mt Ena is known in Wosite literature as the site of sacred storage of Amateru’s ena placenta. The Ena Jinja is due west of Mt Ena, on the Gifu-ken side of the mountain.

Omoikane and the Calendar

May 22, 2019 at Kanayama Megaliths

During the time of Amateru, the 8th Amakami, a more precise solar calendar was sought; such a calendar was created by Omoikane. Omoikane made the lunar calendar into a solar calendar by introducing a leap-month. He was given the title of Hiyomi-no-miya, the one who knows the solar calendar. The next to hold the position was Amefutaye Murakumo, and the third was Omoikane’s son Tatikarawo.

Hotuma Tutaye 24-8

Omoikane     koyomi tukurite 
koko ni ari   Noti Murakumo ni
yuzuri oku.   ...
Tatikarawo   woya no atotote
koko ni ari

According to Wosite, the Takamimusubi of Hitakami (now Tohoku area) were responsible for maintaining a calendar. We note that Achihiko Omoikane is great-grandson of the fifth Takamimusubi Toyoke.

A solar calendar from Wosite times still operates in the mountains of Hida Kanayama. Constructed of megaliths, this sun-tracking station determines a super-accurate solar calendar. See posts, for example,

Kanayama Solar Calendar


Agō Kiyohiko on Kototama

Agō Kiyohiko on Kototama

“Kototama no michi is explained in super-ancient history of Biwako’s esoteric doctrine. Dr. Agō accomplished this momentous research in a lifetime career as pioneering director of the Biwako Research Center. “ 

These statements were retrieved in November 2013 from the website of the Biwako Research Center. The website is no longer online. Biwako, largest lake in Japan, lies in the center of Shiga Prefecture. It is of particular interest to students of Wosite as the Naka-Kuni Central Land of Isanami and Isanagi. Biwako is also of historical interest to geologists, biologists, archaeologists, and anthropologists as a region rich in human and natural activity from ancient times.

Agō Kiyohiko, former electrical engineer who spent his long retirement years studying ancient matters such as Wosite, made the following remarks about Kototama on this website.

“Kototama is the recognized spiritual function of Japan’s ancient language.”

“Kototama is a language inseparable from sending the supernatural…”

“Kototama is the sound coming from kami, as distinct from the sound made by ordinary people.”

“When ordinary people speak a language of understanding, then it is kototama. ‘That person has kototama’ we often hear, meaning that he/she has grasped spiritual phenomena.”

“In today’s scientific, materialistic civilization, there are those who deride it mistakenly. But wise people find a deep recognition.”

Brief Biography of 吾郷清彦  Agō Kiyohiko (1909-2003)

Agō Kiyohiko is best known for his research into Old Shinto and ancient literature of Japan. He went to school in Shimane-ken. He had a degree in electrical engineering from the Manchuria Institute of Electrical Engineering. He worked as a power engineer at Manchu Electric Industry in a thermal power plant. After returning to Japan, he played a central role in the construction and operation of a hydroelectric power plant in Shimane.

After his retirement, he devoted himself to research in ancient Japan and leadership of the Biwako Research Center. He published fifteen or more books on topics such as Old Shinto, Takamahara, Uetsufumi, Kuki Shinden, Kamiyo-moji, ultra-ancient history, Takeuchi documents, Hotsuma Tsutaye, and Kototama. Introduction to Old Shinto (Koshinto Nyumon ), a book of three-person dialogues on many of the above subjects, was published in 2000 when Dr. Agō was 90 years old. He died three years later.   

Koshinto Nyumon by Agō Kiyohiko et al.

“In today’s scientific, materialistic civilization, there are those who deride it [Kototama] mistakenly. But wise people find a deep recognition.”   — Agō Kiyohiko

1.1 Revised References and Resources

This is an updated list of references and resources. Here are some sources for the Western and Japanese Wosite researcher. There are only two books in English; the others are in Japanese. We are preparing what will be the third book in English. Keep watching for further news. We welcome your inputs.


The first modern books on Wosite were written (in Japanese) by Yoshinosuke Matsumoto after he had studied the Hotsuma Tsutae for thirty years. Two books appeared in English. 

Book 1 by Ikeda and Book 2 by Matsumoto

1.  Mitsuru Ikeda, The World of the Hotsuma Legends, Japan Translation Center, 1996.

2.  Yoshinosuke Matsumoto, The Hotsuma Legends: Paths of the Ancestors, Japan Translation Center, 1999.

Numerous books in Japanese have been published by Mitsuru Ikeda. Of particular value is this two-volume work offering all the extant Woshite literature, in Woshite with footnotes,

Book 3 in two volumes by Ikeda

3.  記紀原書ヲシテ 上巻―『ホツマツタヱ』『ミカサフミ』『フトマニ』のすべて,  Ki-ki gensho Woshite: Hotsuma Tsutae, Mikasafumi, Futomani  (two volumes), Woshite Original Documents for Ki-Ki (Kojiki and Nihon Shoki):  Hotsuma Tsutae, Mikasafumi, Futomani.  池田 満  (著)  Ikeda Mitsuru (author), 2006.

Book 4 Hotsuma Jiten by Ikeda

4. ホツマ辞典―漢字以前の世界へ, Hotsuma Jiten — Kanji Izen no Sekai he, 池田 満  (著)  Ikeda Mitsuru (author), 1999.

Book 5 by Matsumoto

5. ミカサフミ・フトマニ Mikasafumi – Futomani , 松本 善之助 (監修), 池田 満 , Matsumoto Yoshinosuke (author), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision), 1999.

More recently, books by Wosite researchers Aoki, Hiraoka, and Shiba have appeared, also in Japanese. Wosite research and this site draw heavily from these two books:

Book 6 by Aoki and Hiraoka

6.「よみがえる日本語 −−ことばのみなもとヲシテ」Yomigaeru Nihongo — Kotoba no minamoto Woshite,  Revival of Japanese Language – Woshite Origin of Language. 青木 純雄・平岡 憲人 (著), 池田 満 (監修),   Aoki Sumio and Hiraoka Norito (authors), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision). 明治書院 Meiji Shoin Publishing House, 2009.    

Book 7 by Aoki and Shiba

7.  よみがえる日本語II: 助詞のみなもと「ヲシテ」 Yomigaeru Nihongo II:  Joshi no minamoto Woshite,  Revival of Japanese Language II: Woshite Source of Particles.青木 純雄 (著), 斯波 克幸 (著), 池田 満 (監修),  Aoki Sumio and Shiba Katsuyuki (authors), Ikeda Mitsuru (supervision). 明治書院 Meiji Shoin Publishing House, 2015.

Book 8 in two volumes by Suda Masako

8. 完訳 超古代史 秀真伝  Kanyaku (complete translation) “Chou-Kodaishi Hotsuma Tsutae” by 須田麻紗子. Ultra Ancient Document Hotsuma Tsutae, 2013, two volumes by Suda Masako. See previous post for details.

Book 9 by JTC

9. 〔ホツマツタヱ〕―秀真政伝紀 by 大田田根子命、 安聡, 和仁估. Hotsuma Tsutae by Ohta Taneko, Yasutoshi Waniko, Japan Translation Center, 2000/2010. This book presents the complete text of Yasutoshi Waniko, handwritten in 1775.

Book 10 Koshi Koden Taikei

10. 古史古伝大系―神道・倭人・天皇の歴史 Koshi Koden Taikei, Compendium of Ancient History of Legends, by 吾郷 清彦, 鹿島昇Agō Kiyohiko et al., 1983. The term koshi koden was coined by Agō to refer to this genre of literature. There is a chapter on Hotsuma Tsutaye and Mikasafumi by Agō. Other chapters include Kodai moji (ancient scripts); Uetsufumi, Kuki Shinden, and Takenouchi Monjo ancient documents. The Wosite documents are not the only documents written in an ancient script.

Internet Sources

Chapters of the Hotsuma Tsutae can be read on the English language site of the Japan Translation Center,

The Julian Way Wosite website of Beace is tremendously informative, if you can read Japanese or have it translated for you.

Our sister blogsite, has carried posts on Woshite which can be found by searching on this word. These were earlier posts that were translated from various Japanese language sources to the best of our ability at that time. We have since had the honor and the privilege to study with Japanese Wosite researchers and have produced this site devoted to Wosite research.

Online Japanese-English dictionary

If you have a digital text in Japanese, you can copy and paste it into this dictionary:  “Enter any Japanese text or English word in the search box and Jisho will search a myriad of data for you.”

We hope that this Woshite World site now makes Wosite research more accessible to English language readers.